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Today in Food History, Timeline & Food Holidays: National Food Days, Weeks & Months

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Today in Food HistoryFOOD TIMELINE: >  1865 to '69




50,000 BC to 1 BC
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1831 to 1835   ·   1836 to 1840
1841 to 1845   ·   1846 to 1849
1850 to 1854   ·   1855 to 1859
1860 to 1864   ·   1865 to 1869
1870 to 1874   ·   1875 to 1879
1880 to 1884   ·   1885 to 1889
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1900 to 1905   ·   1906 to 1910
1911 to 1915   ·   1916 to 1920
1921 to 1925   ·   1926 to 1930
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1865 to 1869

1865 A horse meat banquet is held at the Grand Hotel in Paris.

1865 Hugh Falconer died (born Feb 29, 1808).  Scottish botanist and paleontologist. After investigations, he successfully recommended that tea production be introduced to India.

1865 John Lindley died (born Feb 5, 1799). British botanist and horticulturist. Wrote 'The Theory and Practice of Horticulture' (1840) and 'The Vegetable Kingdom' (1846).

1865 John James McLaughlin was born (died Jan 28, 1914). Canadian chemist and pharmacist, founder of Canada Dry soft drink brand.

1865 William Morton Wheeler was born (died April 19, 1937). American entomologist, a world authority on ants. His books include 'Ants: Their Structure, Development and Behavior' (1910) and 'Social LIfe Among the Insects' (1923).

1865 Cornell University was chartered. Cornell is an agricultural land grant university endowed by Ezra Cornell, one of the founders of Western Union Telegraph Co.  Today, Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, offers many programs, including Agricultural and Life Sciences, Hotel Administration, and Nutritional Sciences.

1865 Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Jane Cochran) was born. In 1889 Bly successfully completed an attempt to beat the record of Jules Verne's fictional Phileas Fogg to go 'Around the World in Eighty Days'. Bly was a U.S. newspaper reporter and completed the journey in 72 days, 6 hours, 11 minutes and 14 seconds.

1865 Edmund Ruffin died. He was a pioneer in the study of soil chemistry in the U.S.

1865 Isabella Beeton died.  A famous Victorian home economist, author of 'Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management.' The book, popularly known as 'Mrs Beeton's Cookbook,' contained a compilation of over 900 recipes and advice on all aspects of running a middle class household.

1865 William Sheppard of New York City received a patent for liquid soap.

1865 Prosper Montagne was born.Montagne was one of the great French chefs of all time. He is mainly remembered as the creator of Larousse Gastronomique (1938), a comprehensive encyclopedia of French gastronomy.

1865 James H. Nason (or Mason) of Franklin, Massachusetts received the first U.S. patent (No. 51741) for a coffee percolator.

1865 William Booth and his wife Catherine founded the Salvation Army.

1865 John Macadam died (born 1827).  Australian (born in Scotland) chemist and politician. The Macadamia nut was named for him.

1865-1870 The sharecropping system in the South replaced the old slave plantation system.

1865 The Union Stock Yard & Transit Co. incorporated in Illinois to build and operate stock yards in Chicago.

1865 John Deere of Moline, Illinois received a patent for an 'Improvement in Plows'

1865 Gifford Pinchot was born (died Oct 4, 1946).  In 1905 he was the first chief of the new Forest Service when management of forest reserves was transferred to the Dept. of Agriculture from the Dept. of the Interior.  Regarded as a father of American conservation due to his unrelenting concern for the protection of the American forests.

1865 Sir William Jackson Hooker died (born July 6, 1785).  English botanist, established the Royal Botanical Institution of Glasgow, and in 1841 became the first director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, near London.  He expanded the gardens from 11 to 300 acres, and established Kew as a national botanic garden.

1866 Breyer's Ice Cream is founded in Phjiladelphia.

1866 Alfred L. Cralle was born (died May 3, 1920).  Inventor of  an ice cream scoop, his design is still in use today.

1866 The New York City Metropolitan Board of Health was created.

1866 Fritz Hofmann was born February 11 (died Oct 29, 1956). German chemist who first synthesized rubber (German patent No. 250690, Sept 12, 1909).

1866 Barbe-Nicole Clicquot died (born Dec 16, 1777).  The Grand Dame of Champagne.  At age 27 she took over her husband Francois Clicquot's champagne house on his death.  Today Veuve Clicquo is one of the great premium champagne houses in France.

1866 Eighteen year old Jack Newton Daniel established his distillery in Tennessee.

1866 The indelible pencil is patented by Edson P. Clark of Northhampton, Massachusetts. This was the equivalent of the ball point pen of the time. It was non-erasable, and you didn’t need an ink well. Used for bills, prices, etc., you could also place a damp sheet of tissue paper over the writing to get a mirror image. It must have been time consuming to get a receipt from a restaurant.

1866 Beatrix Potter was born. English author of children's books, her first and most famous story is 'The Tale of Peter Rabbit,' originally written as an illustrated letter to a sick child.

1866 The metric system was authorized to standardize weights and measures in the U.S. (Authorized, yes, but we still don't use it very much).

1866 J. Osterhoudt of New York City received U.S. patent #58,554 for the first tin can with a key opener.

1866 The 2 mile long, 5 foot diameter Chicago Lake Tunnel was completed. It was the first water supply tunnel for a U.S. city.

1866 Gregor (Johann) Mendel published his work on the laws of heredity. Mendel was an Austrian botanist whose work was the foundation of the science of genetics. He worked mainly with garden peas (some 28,000 plants over 7 years).

1866 Congress authorized the minting of a 5 cent coin made of copper-nickel, and referred to as a 'nickel'.  Silver 5 cent pieces had been called half dimes.

1867 Sebastian Spering Kresge was born (died Oct 18, 1966).  American merchant who started a chain of variety stores.  Renamed Kmart Corp. in 1977, which evolved into Sears Holdings Corp, parent of Sears and Kmart stores.

1867 The British Parliament enacted the Merchant Shipping Act of 1867, which mandated that lemon or lime juice (or other anti-scorbutics) be provided to most ships crews daily to prevent illness (scurvy).

1867 The first issue of 'Harpers Bazaar' magazine was published.

1867 National Grange was founded. It was the first organized agricultural movement in the U.S.

1867 On July 18, 36 inches of rain fell in 36 hours at Sauk Center, Minnesota.

1867 The Kansas Pacific Railroad reached Abilene, Kansas. Cattle drives from Texas begin.

1867 Sir William Cecil Dampier was born.  British scientist, he developed a method to extract lactose (milk sugar) from whey.

1867 Lillian D. Wald was born. She was a scientist and nurse, and among her activities, she helped initiate the enactment of pure food laws in the U.S.

1867 Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge died. A German chemist who developed a method for obtaining sugar from beet juice.

1867 The 2 mile long, 5 foot diameter Chicago Lake Tunnel was activated. It was the first water supply tunnel for a U.S. city.

1867 At the Cafe Anglais Chef Adolphe Duglere served the famous 'Dinner of the Three Emperors,' for Tsar Alexander II of Russia, his son (later to become tsar Alexander III) and King William I of Prussia. The table service used for the dinner is still on display at the oldest existing restaurant in Paris, La Tour d'Argent

1867 Lucien B. Smith of Kent, Ohio received a patent for barbed wire.  (One of many patents for barbed wire. See also Nov 24, 1874)

1867 Reinforced concrete was patented by F. Joseph Monier. He was a Paris gardener, and developed reinforced concrete to use in garden tubs, beams and posts.

1867 Harvard School of Dental Medicine was founded in Boston, Massachusetts. It was the first dental school in the U.S.

1867 Charles Francis Jenkins was born.  An inventor who is best known as an early television pioneer. Among his many inventions was a cone-shaped drinking cup.

1867 Maximilian Bircher-Benner was born. He was a Swiss doctor who developed the cereal product 'Muesli,' which is similar to Granola.

1867 Leon Daudet was born. French journalist and novelist, well known gastronome of his time.

1867 J.B. Sutherland of Detroit, Michigan received the first U.S. patent (No. 71,423) for a refrigerated railroad car.  An insulated, double walled car with compartments for 800 pounds of ice at each end.

1867 Nebraska becomes the 37th state. The Cornhusker State.

1867 The U.S. agreed to purchase Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million (about 2 cents an acre). The Treaty with Russia was negotiated and signed by Secretary of State William Seward and Russian Minister to the United States Edouard de Stoeckl.  Critics at the time called it "Seward’s Folly”

1867 Sheldon Everitt of Ansonia, Connecticut received a patent for a 'Tea Kettle.'

1868 William Davis of Detroit, Michigan, received a patent for an improvement in refrigerated railroad cars.

1868 William T. G. Morton died (born Aug 9, 1819).  An American surgeon, in 1846 he became the first dentist to use ether (letheon) during a tooth extraction.

1868 Jesse Chisholm died in Oklahoma (born 1805?).  A frontier trader, Chisholm blazed one of the West’s most famous cattle trails (The Chisholm Trail) between Texas and Kansas.

1868 California issued a charter for the San Francisco SPCA (Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals), the fourth SPCA in the U.S.

1868 The U.S. Congress passed the Organic Act creating the Wyoming Territory.

1868 Inauguration Day for Cornell University, with an entering class of 412 students.Cornell is an agricultural land grant university endowed by Ezra Cornell, one of the founders of Western Union Telegraph Co. (see also April 27, 1865).

1868 James Mayer de Rothschild died (born 1792).  European banker and founder of the French branch of the Rothschild family.  In 1868 he acquired the famous Chateau Lafite vineyards in Bordeaux, France.

1868 Felix Hoffman was born January 21 (died 1946).  German chemist who synthesized aspirin in 1897. (see also Feb 27, 1900)

1868 Fritz Haber was born December 9 (died Jan 29, 1934). German chemist, he developed a method of synthesizing ammonia directly from nitrogen and hydrogen (1909). This led to large-scale commercial  production of nitrogen fertilizer.

1868 William Davis, a Detroit, Michigan fish dealer, received a patent for a refrigerator car ('ice box on wheels'). He also designed the first refrigerated railway car.

1868 Charles Darwin's 'Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication.' was published.

1868 C.H. Gould of Birminghom, England patented a stapler. (Countless staplers have been patented).

1868 Kit Carson, American frontiersman, died. His last words were supposedly "Wish I had time for just one more bowl of chili."

1868 The first railroad dining car, was introduced by the Pullman Palace Car Company.

1868 The town site of Reno, Nevada (named after Civil War General Jesse Reno) was officially established.

1868 Christopher Lathan Sholes of Wisconsin patented a mechanical writing machine, called a type-writer. It was as large as a desk, made of black walnut and had black and white keys. He signed a deal with the Remington Arms company for its manufacture in 1873. It was  Remington who turned it into a more practical machine. Chefs could now type their recipes so others could read them. (Only Doctors have more illegible handwriting than Chefs).

1868 Amariah M. Hills, of Hockanum, Connecticut, received a patent for Improvement in Lawn-Mowers ("new and improved [cutting] device for mowing grass by hand"). The first reel lawn mower patent in U.S.

1869 The brig 'Novelty' returns to Boston, from Matanzas, Cuba, with 84,075 gallons of molasses, shipped on a new principle, not in casks, but in bulk, in large tanks, and in excellent condition.

1869 The Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital opened in New York.

1869 Beer was first sold in bottles by English brewer Francis Manning-Needham.

1869 The first batch of Tabasco Sauce was shipped from Avery Island, Louisiana.

1869 The Canadian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was founded.

1869 New York governor John Thompson Hoffman signed a bill creating the American Museum of Natural History. (The museum opened to the public in New York City on April 27, 1871).

1869 A golden spike was driven at Promontory Summit, Utah, joining the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads, officially completing the U.S. Transcontinental Railroad.

1869 The brig 'Novelty' returns to Boston, from Matanzas, with 84,075 gallons of molasses, shipped on a new principle, not in casks, but in bulk, in large tanks, and in excellent condition.

1869 The transcontinental railroad is officially completed. People in New York can now eat California fruit.

1869 U.S. agricultural exports were about $182 million a year during the 1860s.

1869 The first batch of Tabasco Sauce was shipped from Avery Island, Louisiana.

1869 A removable steel plow blade is patented by James Oliver of South Bend, Indiana.

1869 John W. Hyatt Jr. and his brother Isaiah S. Hyatt received U.S. patent 91,341 for "a new and improved method of manufacturing solid collodion and its compounds."  Isaiah later named the material 'celluloid', the first synthetic plastic.

1869 David Grandison Fairchild was born. An American botanist and agriculturalist, he was responsible for introducing many useful plants to the U.S. Author of 'The World Was My Garden,' and 'Exploring for Plants'.

1869 The first American patent for a sweeping machine was issued to Ives W. McGaffney of Chicago.

1869 Frozen food was shipped long distance for the first time. Frozen Texas beef shipped by steamship to New Orleans.

1869 Joseph Dixon died. An American inventor and manufacturer. Among his many accomplishments, he produced the first pencil made in the U.S.

1869 Agoston Haraszthy de Mokcsa died. Agoston Haraszthy de Mokcsa imported 1,400 varieties of grapevines to California in 1862 and planted the first large vineyard in California in the Sonoma Valley.  After the devastating phylloxera blight decimated the European vineyards, some of these same vines, now on resistant American root stock, helped rescue the European vineyards.

1869 Henry Tibbe invented the corncob pipe. The pipe was made from a white kernel corn that was used to make taco and tortilla flour. (But can you roll a cigar with a taco wrapper?)

1869 Hippolyte Mege Mouries patented margarine. Emperor Napoleon III had offered a prize for a suitable substitute for butter, for use by the French Navy.

1869 Cornelius Swarthout of Troy, New York received the first U.S. patent for a stovetop Waffle Iron (U.S. patent No. 94,093).

1869 Mary Mallon was born.  'Typhoid Mary' was an infamous household cook who was responsible for major outbreaks of typhoid in the New York City area in 1904, 1907, and 1914. She was immune to typhoid herself, but was a carrier of the bacillus, and spread it wherever she worked as a household cook  (see also March 27, 1915).

1869 The Suez Canal opened, linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea.

1869 The 3 masted clipper ship 'Cutty Sark' was launched at Dunbarton, Scotland. It was one of the last to be built and is the only one surviving today. It is 212 feet long and 36 feet wide. It was initially used in the English/Chinese tea trade. Fully restored in 1957, it is in dry berth in Greenwich, London as a sailing museum.   Cutty Sark Scotch Whisky, created in 1923 was named after the clipper ship, and the ship's image appears on the label.

1869 William Finley Semple of Mount Vernon, Ohio received the first U.S. patent (No. 98,304) for chewing gum, although he never commercially manufactured any gum.

1869 Joseph Campbell, a fruit merchant, and Abram Anderson , an icbox maker got together to can tomatoes, vegetables, fruit preserves, etc. This was the beginning of the Campbell Soup Company.

1869 Beer was first sold in bottles by English brewer Francis Manning-Needham.

1869 Frederick Walton of London, England was granted U.S. patent 87,227 for his invention, Linoleum, the first widely used smooth floor covering.

1869 John Campbell, governor of the Wyoming Territory, approved the first law in U.S. history explicitly granting women the right to vote. (see also: 1889).

1869 The brig 'Novelty' returns to Boston, from Matanzas, with 84,075 gallons of molasses, shipped on a new principle, not in casks, but in bulk, in large tanks, and in excellent condition.


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