FOOD HISTORY TIMELINE
1820 to 1824
1820 The population of the U.S. is now 9,683,453.
1820 Maine became the 23rd state in the U.S.
1820 Sir Joseph Banks died (born Feb 13, 1743). English botanist known for his promotion of the natural sciences. President of the Royal Society for over 40 years; adviser for King George III to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.
1820 Jean Etienne Bore, died. Inventor of sugar granulating process (1794 or 1795), founder of sugar industry in Louisiana.
1820 Daniel Boone died. American pioneer and frontiersman.
1820 A whaling ship, the Essex, is rammed twice by a sperm whale and eventually sank.
1820 Agriculture Committee, U.S. House of Representatives is established.
1820 James Buchanan Eads was born. Created special boats and a diving bell for salvaging goods from sunken riverboats on the Mississippi river. He also created a jetty system on the Mississippi for New Orleans which used the river's flow to cut its channel deeper enabling year round navigation.
1820 John Tyndall was born Aug 2 (died 1893). British physicist. He is popularly remembered as the first to explain why the sky is blue (atmospheric molecules preferentially scatter the sun's blue rays).
1820 Abram Lyle was born. Scottish shipbuilder and sugar refiner. Noted for the pale treacle, 'Lyle's Golded Syrup' (treacle is made from the syrup that remains after sugar is refined).
1820 Florence Nightingale was born (died 1910). English nurse who established modern nursing practice.
1821 Spain formally transferred Florida to the United States.
1821 Elizabeth Blackwell was born (died 1910). First woman to receive an M.D. degree from a U.S. medical school (1849).
1821 Clara Barton was born. Founder of the American Red Cross.
1821 Franz Karl Achard died on April 20 (born 1753). A German chemist, he developed the first commercial process to produce sugar from sugar beets in 1796, and in 1802 established the first sugar beet refinery.
1821 Jacob Schweppe died. A German watchmaker and amateur scientist. Developed the first practical and commercially successful process for producing carbonated mineral water.
1822 Boston ('Bean Town') was granted a charter to incorporate as a city.
1822 Jeremiah Bailey of Chester county, Pennsylvania patented the first practical mower or grass cutting machine. The two wheeled mower was horse-drawn and could mow ten acres a day.
1822 The first issue of 'The New England Farmer' was published.
1822 A prisoner-powered treadmill for grinding corn began operation at New York City Prison. Up to 16 prisoners at a time walked on a paddle-wheel like treadmill, grinding about 50 bushels of corn per day. The trial project lasted only a few years.
1822 Charles Graham of New York received a patent for artificial teeth.
1822 Charles Graham received the first patent for false teeth.
1822 Paul Henderson was born. A Scottish-American scientist, known as the 'Father of America Horticulture,' he published 'Gardening for Profit’ and 'Gardening for Pleasure'.
1822 Gregor (Johann) Mendel was born. Mendel was an Austrian botanist whose work was the foundation of the science of genetics. Working mainly with garden peas (some 28,000 plants over 7 years), he discovered what was to become know as the laws of heredity.
1822 Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz was born. An American naturalist, co-founder with her husband (Louis Agassiz), of the Anderson school of Natural History. She was also the first president of Radclife College.
1822 Louis Pasteur was born. A French scientist, he showed that microorganisms were responsible for disease, food spoilage and fermentation. He developed the process for killing these organisms by heat, called Pasteurization. He also developed vaccines for anthrax, cholera and rabies.
1822 Rowland H. Macy was born (died 1877). Founder of Macy's department store (Oct 27, 1858).
1823 Clement Moore's classic poem, 'A Visit from St Nicholas' (The Night Before Christmas) was first published (anonymously) in the Troy, New York 'Sentinel.'
1823 Alfred Russel Wallace was born. Wallace was a British naturalist who developed a theory of natural selection independently of Charles Darwin. He sent his conclusions to Darwin, and their findings were both presented to the Linnaean Society in 1858.
1823 Spencer Fullerton Baird was born. An American naturalist and zoologist, he was the second Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
1823 A Frenchman, Count Odette Phillipe, planted the first grapefruit trees in Florida around Tampa Bay. Today, Florida produces more grapefruit than the rest of the world combined.
1824 Jean Jacques Regis de Cambaceres died. A French politician and gourmet. A gastronomic contemporary and rival of Talleyrand and Carême. The dinners he gave were famous, and Cambaceres closely supervised the food preparation. He refused to admit late-comers, and was also said to have demanded complete silence while dining. (Freud would have like to meet him!)
1824 'The Virginia House-wife' cookbook by Mary Randolph was published.
1824 A washing machine was patented by Noah Cushing of Quebec. This was the first Canadian patent ever issued.
1824 John Simpson Chisum was born. American frontiersman and cattle rancher. In 1867 he blazed the Chisum Trial from Paris, Texas to New Mexico. Between 1870 and 1881 he had the largest cattle herd in the U.S. near Roswell, New Mexico.
1824 The city of Ciudad Bolivar in Venezuela, was founded in 1764, and was commonly known as Angostura. In 1824 a local doctor first formulated Angostura Bitters, now used as an aromatic flavoring in drinks and cooking.
1824 Ferdinand Carre was born. A French engineer and pioneer in refrigeration methods. In 1859 he invented the ammonia vapor-compression system which became the most widely used. Vapor compression is still the system most used today.