FOOD HISTORY TIMELINE
1860 to 1864
1860 M.L. Byrn patented a new and improved corkscrew.
1860 The population of the U.S. is now 31,443,321. Farmers are 58% of the labor force. There are about 2,044,000 farms, averaging about 199 acres.
1860 Obed Hussy died. Invented a horse drawn reaper.
1860 The U.S. has about 30,000 miles of railroad tracks.
1860 George A. Hormel was born on Dec 4 (died June 5, 1946). Founder of meat packing company, George A. Hormel & Co. (Hormel Foods) in Austin, Minnesota in 1891. Developed the first canned ham in 1926, introduced 'Spam' in 1937.
1860 The first Pony Express mail delivery arrives in Sacramento, California on April 13. (or possibly not until 1 a.m. on the 14th). The trip from St. Joseph, Missouri took 10 days. (See April 3, 1860).
1860 The August Schell Brewing Company, New Ulm, Minnesota was founded by August Schell and Jacob Bernhardt.
1860 In June, the 692 foot long iron sailing steam ship SS Great Eastern, the largest ship ever built at the time, began its first transatlantic voyage. The Captain had to delay the voyage for a day because the crew was drunk. The ship had a capacity of 4,000 passengers.
1860 The first Pony Express mail delivery service by horse and rider between St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California began. The 1,800 mile run took 10 days.
1860 Will Kieth Kellogg was born. Founded Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Co. (W.K. Kellogg Company) to manufacture cereals (cornflakes were the first) developed by his brother John Harvey Kellogg.
1860 Mary Jane Rathbun was born. A marine zoologist and crustacean expert.
1860 Charles Goodyear died. He invented the process named 'vulcanization' which made the commercial use of rubber possible. Vulcanized rubber didn't become brittle in winter and turn gummy in summer as natural rubber did.
1860 Chapin Aaron Harris died. He was cofounder of the first dental school in the world, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery.
1860s Louis Pasteur invented the process of pasteurization - using heat treatment to destroy harmful bacteria in beverages and some food products.
1860 Eduard Buchner was born (died 1917). A German biochemist, awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1907 for demonstrating the fermentation of carbohydrates results from the action of different enzymes contained in yeast and not the yeast cell itself. He showed that the enzyme zymase causes sugar to break up, and it can be extracted from yeast cells.
1861 Congress authorizes the Treasury Secretary to issue paper currency, called 'Demand Notes,' to finance costs of the Civil War.
1861 Helen Porter Mitchel was born (died 1931). Stage name, Nellie Melba. A world famous operatic soprano born in Australia, Melba Toast and Peach Melba were named for her. Escoffier is thought to have been involved with the creation and/or naming of both dishes.
1861 Elisha Graves Otis died on April 8 (born August 3, 1811). Otis invented the first safe elevator and opened the door to rooftop restaurants.
1861 David Wesson was born. Wesson was an American chemist and in 1900 he developed a method to make pure cotton seed oil palatable, and formed the Southern Oil Company. Wesson Oil was the first vegetable oil used in the U.S. Cotton seed oil is noted for its lack of taste, which allows the flavors of foods to come through. It is used in margarines, salad dressings, and in commercially fried foods.
1861 Samuel Slocum died. He invented a machine to make pins with solid heads and a machine for sticking the pins in a paper holder for sale.
1861 John Stevens Henslow died. This British clergyman and botanist was a mentor of Charles Darwin. To get farmers to apply scientific methods, he gave lectures on the fermentation of manure. He also showed Irish farmers how to get starch from rotten potatoes during the potato famine of 1845-1846.
1861 Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins was born. He discovered what we now call 'vitamins,' essential nutrients needed to maintain health.
1861 The first U.S. national income tax is passed to aid the Union war effort.
1861 William Wrigley, Jr. was born. William Wrigley Jr. started out as a traveling salesman at the age of 13, selling soap for his father's company. He had a series of sales jobs, one which gave chewing gum as a premium. Customers liked the gum better than the product, so he was soon marketing his own gum, Juicy Fruit in 1893, and later that year Wrigley's Spearmint. He was an advertising genius, and his company became one of the largest advertisers in the U.S., and the largest chewing gum manufacturer in the world.
1861 The first transcontinental telegraph was completed and went into operation. Within days the Pony Express ceased operations.
1861 or 1864 George Washington Carver was Born. African American botanist, educator, agricultural chemist and innovator. He developed hundreds of uses for peanuts, soybeans and sweet potatoes. He established the George Washington Carver Research Foundation at Tuskegee, for agricultural research.
1862 The U.S. Bureau of Agriculture was established. It became the USDA (Department of Agriculture) in 1889.
1862 The Cafe du Monde opened in the French Market of New Orleans.
1862 First large vineyards planted in California. Agoston Haraszthy de Mokcsa brought 1,400 varieties of grapevines from Europe to California in 1862, and planted the first large vineyard in California in the Sonoma Valley. After the phyloxera blight destroyed much of Europe’s vineyards, some of these same vines, now on resistant root stock, helped save the European wine industries.
1862 John D. Lynde of Philadelphia patented the first aerosol dispenser.
1862 Henry David Thoreau died. American author, philosopher, and naturalist. Author of 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods.'
1862 President Lincoln signed the Homestead Act into law. It opened millions of acres Western land to settlers.
1862 W.H. Fancher and C.M. French patented a combined plow and gun.
1862 The first Land Grant Act was passed. Public lands were sold for agricultural education. This was the start of many state universities.
1862 The first U.S. paper money (national currency notes) were issued.
1862 Dr. Alexander P. Anderson was born. He developed Puffed Rice in NYC in 1902, which was introduced to the world at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904.
1863 The world's first underground railway, London's Metropolitan Railway, officially opened.
1863 There were 2,004 breweries in the United States producing about 2 million barrels of beer.
1863 Daniel Freeman is the first to submit a claim under the new Homestead Act, for 160 acres near Beatrice, Nebraska.
1863 James Plimpton of New York patented 4 wheeled roller skates.
1863 London's Metropolitan, the first underground passenger railroad opened at 6 a.m.
1863 Women rioted in Salisbury, North Carolina, to protest the lack of flour and salt in the Confederacy.
1863 Women rioted in Salisbury, North Carolina, to protest the lack of flour and salt in the Confederacy.
1863 THE RICHMOND BREAD RIOTS. Shortages of food caused hundreds of angry women gathered in Richmond, Virginia to march on the governor's office and then on the government commissary to demand bread. It ended in a riot when they broke into the commissary and then other shops & buildings and carried out anything they could carry. Even the hospital reported losing over 300 pounds of beef. Arrests were made, but at the request of authorities, the newspapers downplayed the incident, and records were later destroyed when the Confederate government fled and burned much of the town behind them.
1863 Curtis Fletcher Marbut was born. American geologist and one of the founders of modern soil science. He was with the U.S. Bureau of Soils for 25 years.
1863 Abraham Lincoln declared that Thanksgiving Day would be an annual event celebrated on the last Thursday in November.
1863 J.T. Alden was issued a patent for an improved method of manufacturing dried yeast.
1863 Clement Clarke Moore died. Author of classic poem, "A Visit from St. Nicholas" (now popularly known as "The Night Before Christmas").
1863 Leo Hendrik Baekeland was born. He was a chemist who invented Bakelite, the first plastic that did not soften when heated. Those black plastic knobs on stoves were made of bakelite.
1863 Thanksgiving was first celebrated as a regular American Holiday.
1863 Richard Warren Sears was born. He developed his mail-order jewelry business (1886) into the Sears Roebuck & Company. By 1894 the Sears catalog was 507 pages.
1863 Gerard Adriaan Heineken bought the Amsterdam brewery, 'The Haystack', which dated back to 1592. This was the beginning of Heineken beer.
1863 Frederick Walton of London, England applied for a patent for Linoleum (patent 3,210 granted May 31, 1864), the first widely used smooth surface floor covering.
1863 Granula, probably the first breakfast cereal is introduced. It was created by Dr. James C. Jackson of Dansville, N.Y.
1863 US Department of Agriculture created Massachusetts Agricultural College (University of Massachusetts)
1863 Charles Ringling was born (died 1926). American circus owner (Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus).
1864 Bread riots were reported in Mobile, Alabama.
1864 The first reported dromedary (camel) race in the U.S. was held at Agricultural Park in Sacramento, California (The Sacramento Daily Union).
1864 Frederic Tudor died February 6 (born 1783). 'The Ice King' He created an export trade for block ice harvested from frozen ponds in New England during the winter. The ice was shipped in insulated cargo holds to the Carribbean, India and Europe and stored in insulated warehouses.
1864 The Waseca County Horse Thief Detectives are organized in Wilton, Minnesota.
1864 Anna Jarvis was born. Successfully campaigned from 1908 to 1914 to have Mother's Day recognized as national holiday.
1864 Casey Jones (John Luther Jones) was born. Famed railroad engineer of the passenger train, the Cannonball Express, which crashed into a freight train near Vaughn, Mississippi. He died trying to stop his train and was immortalized as a hero in Wallace Saunders, 'The Ballad of Casey Jones'.
1864 Frederick Walton of London, England was granted patent 3,210 for Linoleum. (U.S. patent 87,227 granted Feb 23, 1869).
1864 Work began on a 2 mile long, 5 foot diameter, water supply tunnel for Chicago. It was completed in 1867.
1864 Carl Akeley was born on May 19 (died Nov 18, 1926). A biologist, taxidermist, nature photographer and conservationist.
1864 John Jacob Astor IV born. Great grandson of John Jacob Astor, who founded the family fortune. John Jacob IV built the Astoria section of what would become the Waldorf Astoria Hotel (1897) in New York city (this was on the site where the Empire State building would be built in 1929). He also built the Knickerbocker and the St. Regis hotels. He died on the Titanic.
1864 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was born. French artist who documented Parisian night life in the 1890s with his insightful posters.
1864 John Fowler died. An English Engineer, he invented the steam-hauled plow and several other special use plows.
1864 or 1861 George Washington Carver was Born. African American botanist, educator, agricultural chemist and innovator. He developed hundreds of uses for peanuts, soybeans and sweet potatoes. He established the George Washington Carver Research Foundation at Tuskegee, for agricultural research.
1864 Paul Kroegel was born (died 1948). The first U.S. Game Warden at Pelican Island on the Indian River on Florida's East Coast. Pelican Island was the first national wildlife refuge in the U.S. (March 14, 1903)
1864 Union Civil War General William T. Sherman sent a message to President Abraham Lincoln from Georgia, "I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the city of Savannah."