This large highly seasoned sausage is name for Bologna, Italy. The true Italian sausage from Bologna is actually called Mortadella.
Lebanon Bologna is a cured, smoked, all beef sausage, dark in color and with a distinct tangy and strong smoky flavor. It originated with the Pennsylvania Dutch in Lebanon Valley in Lebanon County in Pennsylvania.
There are 1,632 people in the U.S. listed on whitepages.com with the last name 'Bologna' and 88 with the last name 'Baloney'
(Mark Morton, 'Gastronomica', Fall 2010)
Americans eat 800 million pounds of bologna annually.
Mortadella is the original bologna - a very large smoked sausage (usually pork) from Bologna, Italy, studded with cubes of pork fat, peppercorns and/or pistachios and/or green olives. American bologna (boloney) is a very poor imitation.
Mortadella probably dates back to the 15th century, and the original recipes included myrtle, 'mortella' in Italian, hence the name.