Kwashiorkor, or Protein Malnutrition, is caused by a severe protein deficiency. It is found mostly in tropical and subtropical regions where the diet is high in starch (cereal grains, cassava, plantain, sweet potato, etc.) and low in protein, and frequently affects young children after weaning.
(Kwashiorkor means 'deposed child' in one African dialect - referring to a child 'deposed' from the mother's breast by a newborn sibling).
Symptoms include stunted growth, edema, potbelly, diarrhea, de-pigmentation of the skin, and loss of hair or reddish orange discoloration of the hair.