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Recipes below The Carthaginian Empire arose in the 7th century B.C. Their domain stretched across northern Africa, southern Spain, Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. A highly commercialized civilization, the Carthaginians endured for approximately 500 years. They may have prospered even longer had it not been for one little fly in the ointment: Rome. The Roman Republic, (which would later give birth to the Roman Empire in the 1st century B.C.) had a big problem with Carthage. Rome yearned to expand and be the only game in town. They coveted Carthage’s land, ports, and their primary source of wealth, i.e., the silver mines of northern Africa and southern Spain. Greed, power and domination: the oldest motives in the world.
Beginning in 264 B.C. Rome and Carthage engaged in a series of three conflicts known as the Punic Wars. Combined, they would take the lives of hundreds of thousands. The first two enervated but did not eliminate Carthage. In the years prior to the third Punic War, Cato the Elder, (234-149 B.C.), a Roman statesman, trenchantly expressed his hatred of Carthage and incited the final confrontation. He scathingly ended all of his speeches with “Carthage must be destroyed.” During one oration to the Roman Senate he held up a fresh fig, recently plucked from a Carthaginian tree and exclaimed: “See how close the enemy is?”
To understand Cato's symbolism it must first be understood that figs deteriorate rapidly. For Cato’s Carthaginian fig to be fresh it had to be within days of its tree. Therefore, his point was to demonstrate the dangerous proximity of Carthage to Roman territory. His point was ultimately well taken for in the third Punic War (149-146 B.C.); Rome annihilated Carthage. The eponymous capital city of Carthage became a major Roman metropolis for the next six centuries until captured by the Vandals in 439 A.D. The fig however, outlasted them all.
According to Genesis, after Adam and Eve had consumed the forbidden fruit, their eyes were opened and they realized their nakedness. They covered themselves by sewing fig leaves together and making aprons. Thus, from an Old Testament point of view, figs have been in existence since the inception of the world. Secularly speaking, figs were possibly one of the first fruits cultivated by man. There is archeological evidence over 11,000 years old from the Jordan Valley suggesting that agriculture began with the fig.
Figs originated in Asia Minor and quickly spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region. The ancient Egyptians made a pastry of figs rolled in dough, the precursor to the modern day Fig Newton. The Greeks valued figs so highly they forbade their export. Various civilizations through time have revered them as sacred and a sign of peace, fertility or prosperity. Clearly they played a vital role in the diets of various Mediterranean peoples for countless generations.
Fresh figs are available June through October. As Cato the Elder indirectly pointed out they are highly perishable. Store them in the fridge for no more than three days. Dried figs, made from ripe autumn specimens, naturally will last longer. Figs are also sold canned in syrup. Figs are a nutritional powerhouse and contain a wide variety of vitamins and minerals. They are a good source of calcium, potassium, iron, fiber, and antioxidants.
There are hundreds of varieties of figs and thousands of cultivars. They range in color from a dark, purplish black to almost white, and in size from round to oval. One of the most popular, the Mission fig, is named after the Spanish Franciscan missionaries who introduced them to America. Figs are employed in multifarious savory and sweet dishes including jams, tarts, mousses, salads, purees and stuffings. In Europe roasted figs are used to flavor coffee. The Arabs ferment them into a spirit. And in many cultures they are still relied on for sundry medicinal purposes.
ROASTED MUSHROOM SALAD WITH FIG BALSAMIC VINAIGRETTE
Adapted from a recipe from Chef Faith Alahverdian)
2 lbs. assorted mushrooms 5 shallots, peeled and quartered 2 Vidalia onions, peeled and cut into large pieces 1 teaspoon chopped garlic ½ teaspoon dried mustard Salt and pepper to taste 1/3 cup olive oil 1 handful of baby spinach leaves 3 tablespoons chopped parsley 3 tablespoons chopped chives 1 red bell pepper, diced 1 yellow bell pepper, diced 1 orange bell pepper, diced Fig balsamic vinaigrette (recipe below)
Preheat your oven to 450 degrees. Line a sheet pan with parchment paper.
Combine mushrooms, shallots, onions, garlic, mustard, salt, pepper, and olive oil in a large bowl.
Place on the sheet pan and roast until golden brown, about 15 minutes.
Remove roasted mushrooms to a large bowl. Add remaining ingredients, mix, and serve.
FIG BALSAMIC VINAIGRETTE RECIPE:
1 cup dried or fresh figs, stems removed and quartered 2 cups balsamic vinegar 1 shallot, minced 1 garlic clove, minced 1 tablespoon lemon juice Salt and pepper to taste ¾ cup extra virgin olive oil
Combine the figs and balsamic in a saucepan and simmer until reduced by half. Puree in a blender and allow the mixture to cool.
Measure 1/3 cup of the fig balsamic for the salad. Reserve the remainder for another use.
Whisk the 1/3 cup of fig balsamic with the shallot, garlic, lemon juice, salt, and pepper in a bowl.
Slowly pour in the oil constantly whisking until fully incorporated.