Milk Facts, Varieties And Terms
TYPES OF MILK
Whole Milk (3.25% fat) contains 150 calories and 8 grams (g) of fat per serving (8 fluid oz). Although not required, whole milk may be fortified with vitamin D at a level of 400 International Units (IU) per 1 quart If vitamin D is added, the
2% Reduced-Fat Milk (2% fat) contains 120 calories and 5 grams (g) of fat per serving (8 fluid oz). Vitamins A and D are removed with the milk fat. For this reason, these vitamins must be added to 2% reduced-fat milk so that it contains at least 2,000 IU of vitamin A and 400 IU of vitamin D per 1 quart The addition of these vitamins must be stated on the label.
1% Lowfat Milk (also called Light Milk) (1% fat) contains 100 calories and 2.5 grams (g) of fat per serving (8 fluid oz). Vitamins A and D must be added to a level of at least 2,000 IU of vitamin A and 400 IU of vitamin D per 1quart The label must indicate the addition of these vitamins.
Fat-Free Milk (also called Skim or Nonfat Milk) (0% fat) contains 80 calories and 0 grams (g) of fat per serving (8 fluid oz). Vitamins A and D must be added to a level of at least 2,000 IU of vitamin A and 400 IU of vitamin D per 1quart The label must indicate the addition of these vitamins.
Chocolate Milk (fat-free, 1% lowfat, 2% reduced-fat, whole milk) is milk to which chocolate or cocoa and a sweetener have been added. This milk is just as nutritious as its unflavored counterpart. Compared to plain milk, chocolate milk contains about 60 more calories per serving (8 fluid oz).
Evaporated Milk (6.5% fat) is made by removing about 60% of the water from whole milk. The milk is then homogenized, fortified with vitamin D to a level of 25 IU per 1 fluid ounce, canned and heat sterilized. The addition of vitamin A is optional. If added, each fluid ounce must contain not less than 125 IU of vitamin A.
Evaporated Fat-Free Milk (0.5% fat or less) is a concentrated, fortified (vitamins A and D) fat-free (skim or nonfat)
Sweetened Condensed Milk (8% fat or less) is a canned milk concentrate of whole milk to which sugar has been added. The sweetener used (usually sucrose) prevents spoilage. Sweetened condensed fat-free milk contains no more than 0.5% milk fat.
MILK PROCESSING TERMS
This is the process of heating raw milk at a high enough temperature for a sufficient length of time to make milk bacteriologically safe and increase its keeping quality. Most milk sold in the U.S. is pasteurized. Pasteurization has little effect on milk's nutritive value.
Milk that is ultrapasteurized has been heated to a higher temperature than pasteurized milk. Ultrapasteurized milk stays fresher longer under refrigeration than pasteurized milk. This process is often used for cream and eggnog.
UHT or Ultra High Temperature Milk
UHT milk is packaged in sterilized containers. UHT milk can be stored at room temperature for up to 3 months. Once opened, it should be refrigerated.
Homogenization breaks up and disperses milk fat throughout milk, resulting in a smooth, uniform texture. Most whole milk is homogenized to prevent the cream from rising to the top. Homogenization results in a softer curd in the stomach that aids digestion.
STORAGE AND HANDLING
• Look for the "sell by" or "pull" dates on milk cartons. If properly cared for, milk generally stays fresh for 2 to 3 days after this date. Some dairy processors guarantee their products for a specific time after this date. Ask your grocer for more details.
• Keep canned milks like evaporated and sweetened condensed milks in a cool dry place and invert the cans every 2 months. These milks generally keep for about a year at room temperature. Once opened, canned milks should be poured into an opaque covered container, refrigerated and used within a few days.
• Store dry milks in a cool, dry place and keep in an airtight container after opening. Once reconstituted, dry milk should be refrigerated and handled like other fluid milks.
• Freezing of milk is not recommended. It causes undesirable changes in milk's texture and appearance.
Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board - www.wisdairy.com