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Food for Thought - Mark R. Vogel - - Mark’s Archive

Three teaspoons equals one tablespoon.

Two tablespoons equals one ounce.

Eight ounces equals one cup

The average restaurant chef makes less than $40,000 per year.

Pork only needs to be cooked to 140-145 degrees.  Trichinosis dies at 137 degrees.

There are less than 20 cases of trichinosis in the US each year.

Cook chicken to 165 degrees.

Beef and lamb are rare at 125, medium-rare at 130, medium at 135, medium well around 140-145, and toast after that.

Cook fish to 140 degrees.

Kentucky Fried Chicken serves about one billion pieces of chicken each year.

Eggs scramble at 160-179 degrees.

To make a coddled egg, submerge an egg in boiling water for 1 minute.

Eggs are sold by the weight of one dozen.  Medium eggs weigh 21-24 oz. per dozen, large 24-27, extra large 27-30, and jumbo 30 or more.

1 in 30,000 eggs is infected with salmonella.

Poaching is done at a temperature of 160-185 degrees.

Simmering is 185-212 degrees.

Boiling is 212 degrees, at sea level.  In Denver, (due to lower atmospheric pressure), water boils at 202 degrees.

The FDA allows up to 30 insect fragments and 1 rodent hair per 100 grams of peanut butter.

The standard ratio for a vinaigrette is 3-1, three parts oil to one part acid.


For stock use 8lbs. bones, 6 quarts water, and 1 lb. mirepoix, (onions, celery and carrots).

Wine stored for long term aging should be kept at 55 degrees.

A baker’s dozen is 13.

Store dried ground spices no longer than 6 months.

Ounce per ounce, lobster has less cholesterol than chicken breast.

One pound, (16 oz.) whole butter produces 12 oz. clarified butter.

One stick of butter equals 4 oz, or a quarter cup.

To proof yeast, place it in water between 100 and 110 degrees.

4 teaspoons of cornstarch or arrowroot will thicken one cup of liquid to a medium consistency.

1 lemon yields 3-4 tablespoons of juice.

1 lime yields 2 tablespoons of juice.

The infamous Death Cap mushroom causes death within 6 – 16 days of consumption.

1 bottle of wine equals 750 milliliters which equals 25 1/3 oz. or approximately four 6-oz. glasses.

There are more chickens than humans on planet Earth.

1 lb. of flour equals 3 ½ - 4 cups, depending on how tightly packed the cups are.


Milk is 4% fat. Two % milk has had half of its fat removed.  Thus, 2% milk is not 98% fat free.  Similarly, 1% milk has had 75% of its fat removed.

Half & Half (half cream & half milk) is 10-12 % fat.

Light cream is usually around 20% fat.

Heavy cream is 36-40% fat.

Shrimp are sold by the number of them that would weigh one pound.  Thus, 16/20 shrimp means that there will be between 16 and 20 per pound. 

When cooking pasta, use at least 4 quarts of water per pound of pasta.

One glass of wine contains approximately 135 calories.

There are approximately 7,500 varieties of apples worldwide.

Roux is made of equal amounts of flour and fat.

Ten minutes of simmering your alcohol-infused sauce only eliminated half of the alcohol.

It takes about 4,000 crocus flowers to make one ounce of saffron.

One bottle of Romanee-Conti, (France’s best Burgundy), sells for about $6,000-$7,000 a bottle.

Extra virgin olive oil must have no more than .8% free acidity to be labeled such.  Virgin olive oil cannot be over 2%.  (Acid content is an indicator of decomposition).

To temper milk chocolate bring it to more than 110 degrees.  For dark chocolate, 115 degrees.

Substitute 1 tablespoon dried herbs for every three tablespoons fresh.
Your average American butter is 80-82% fat, 16-17% water, and 1-2% milk solids.

1 jigger of alcoholic spirits equals 1 ½ oz. A fifth is 750 milliliters.

Boil a 1-lb. lobster for 5-6 minutes, 1 ¼ -lb. 8-10 minutes, 1 ½ -lb. 9-12 minutes, and a 2 pounder 12+ minutes.

Dunkin’ Donuts sells about 1 billion cups of coffee per year.

Two slices of bread yield about 1 cup of fresh breadcrumbs.

Use 1 – 1 ¼ teaspoons baking powder per cup of flour, unless otherwise directed by your specific recipe.

A 1,000 lb. steer yields about 500 lbs. of meat.

1 medium onion equals about ¾ cup chopped.

Wine contains between 8.5 and 14% alcohol.

According to a study by the Restaurant Opportunities Centers United group, 63% of restaurant workers handle food while sick.

Three medium potatoes equal about 1 lb.

One pound of body fat equals 3500 calories.

Pat Bertoletti won this year’s rocky mountain oyster eating world championship in Black Hawk, Colorado by scoffing down 3 lbs. 11.75 oz. of mountain oysters in 10 minutes.  (Mountain oysters are steer testicles).

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